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Blood Pumping System Working Based on Cardiac Output

Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood pumped by the heart minute and is the mechanism whereby blood flows around the body, especially providing blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. The body’s demand for oxygen changes, such as during exercise, and the cardiac output is altered by modulating both heart rate (HR) and stroke volume (SV). As a result, the regulation of cardiac output is subject to a complex mechanism involving the autonomic nervous system, endocrine, and paracrine signaling pathways.


Benjamin Scott*

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